By Gilbert Strang (auth.), David Y. Gao, Hanif D. Sherali (eds.)

The articles that include this extraordinary annual quantity for the Advances in Mechanics and Mathematics sequence were written in honor of Gilbert Strang, a global well known mathematician and extraordinary individual. Written through major specialists in complementarity, duality, international optimization, and quantum computations, this assortment unearths the wonderful thing about those mathematical disciplines and investigates fresh advancements in worldwide optimization, nonconvex and nonsmooth research, nonlinear programming, theoretical and engineering mechanics, huge scale computation, quantum algorithms and computation, and knowledge theory.

Much of the cloth, together with a few of the methodologies, is written for nonexperts and is meant to stimulate graduate scholars and younger college to enterprise into this wealthy area of analysis; it's going to additionally profit researchers and practitioners in numerous parts of utilized arithmetic, mechanics, and engineering.

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1. Assume (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) V is a reflexive Banach space and Q a normed space, F : V × Q → R is a proper, lower semicontinuous, convex function, Λ : V → Q is a linear bounded operator with its adjoint Λ∗ : Q∗ → V ∗ , ∃ u0 ∈ V with F (u0 , Λu0 ) < ∞ and q 7→ F (u0 , q) continuous at Λu0 , F (v, Λv) → +∞ as kvk → ∞ ∀ v ∈ V. 2) has a solution p∗ ∈ Q∗ , and F (u, Λu) = −F ∗ (Λ∗ p∗ , −p∗ ). 1) is unique. The rest of the chapter is organized as follows. 2 we introduce a model elliptic variational inequality of the second kind and its finite element approximation.

The study and applications of a posteriori error analysis is a current active research area, and the related publications grow fast. Some comprehensive summary accounts can be found, in chronicle order, in [70, 1, 7]. Initially, a posteriori error estimates were mainly developed for estimating the finite element error in the energy norm. In the recent years, error estimators have also been developed for goal-oriented adaptivity. The goal-oriented error estimators are derived to specifically estimate errors in quantities of interest, other than the energy norm errors.

Its proof can be found in [21]. 2. There exists an h-independent constant C > 0 such that for all v ∈ V and f ∈ L2 (Ω), 34 V. Bostan, W. 14) kh−1/2 (v − Πh v)k20;γ ≤ C|v|21;Ω . 5) is uh ∈ Vh , a(uh , vh −uh )+j(vh )−j(uh ) ≥ (vh −uh ) ∀ vh ∈ Vh . 16) The discrete problem has a unique solution uh ∈ Vh by the standard existence and uniqueness result on elliptic variational inequalities. We need the following characterization of the finite element solution, similar to that of the solution of the continuous problem.

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