By Ilkka Savolainen, Markus Tähtinen (auth.), Pekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies (eds.)
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Traffic Road Traffic Road traffic consists of cars, vans, lorries, buses and motor-cycles. Special vehicles like fire engines, ambulances etc. are not included but they are classified in the 22 luhani Anhava, Hannu liippinen and Markku Pekkanen Table 1. NO. 05 4,300 700 50,200 12,100 70 30 122,700 Specific emission g N0 2 km- 1 Annual emission tN0 2 a- 1 57,500 65,200 • All lorries and buses are assumed to be diesel-driven. group miscellaneous mobile sources. Based on investigations in Sweden, Holland and the United States, the specific emissions were estimated corresponding to the actual distribution of vehicle and engine types, city/highway mileage and so forth in Finland.
The annual amount of nitrogen contained in the manure of different domestic animals is presented in Table I. e. 6 g m - 2 of arable area (Keranen and Niskanen 1987). In calculation ofN output in livestock manure, the number of animals was expressed as animal units according to Steineck (1974) and Buijsman et al. (1984). 3 chickens under 6 months old. As far as cows and horses are concerned, only the winter-time (245 days per year), when animals are fed in the stable, is involved in the output estimate.
The HAKOMA emission model has also been used to study energy use scenarios based on different assumptions on economic growth and energy conservation (Savolainen and Tiihtinen 1988). In that application, the scenarios of slow economic growth gave very different emissions compared to the scenarios of moderate economic growth. The sulphur emissions of a slow growth scenario with mandated sulphur controls were even more than 30% lower in 2010 than the emissions of a moderate growth scenario with the same assumptions on control measures and energy conservation.